Next. As the situation became too dangerous, Shackleton shifted the goal to ensuring every crew member survived. Margot Morrell and Stephanie Capparell have done us a service by their practical analysis of the lessons we can all learn from Shackleton's way of doing things. Finally, on Aug. 30, 1916, aboard the Yelcho, a Chilean steamer, Shackleton sailed within sight of the island and rescued the 22 remaining men. South Georgia was only a tiny speck of an island, and with the smallest mistake in navigation, the men would be swept out into the Atlantic Ocean, where the nearest land was thousands of miles away. Give whatever perks it is in your power to dispense. December 27, 2011 By Clarke Green. The Best AoM Podcast Episodes on Making and Breaking Habits, Why You Should Consider Volunteering With a Search and Rescue Team, Podcast #673: The Complex Coolness of Steve McQueen, Podcast #672: How to Do the Impossible This Year. Constant turbulence seems to be the new normal, and effective leadership is crucial in containing it. Write a review. Here’s What Happened When I Wore a Tie to Work Every Day for a Year, Your First Style Steps: Beyond Jeans, T-Shirts, and Tennis Shoes, How To Shave Like Your Grandpa Using a Safety Razor, How to Trim Your Mustache: An Illustrated Guide, The Best Damn Guide to Men’s T-Shirts on the Internet, 10 Things Your Father Should Have Taught You About Style, Podcast #449: Faster and Cheaper Alternatives to College, Saving for Your Kids’ College Education: A Primer on the 529, How to Write the Perfect College Application Essay, How to Pursue a New Career (While Still Getting the Bills Paid), So You (Or Your Wife) Wants to Join a Multi-Level Marketing Company, Podcast #175: How to Improve Your Work and Life With Systems, 10 Tips for Successfully Working from Home, #393: The Importance of Building Your Social Capital, Podcast #659: Do You Want to Be Rich or Wealthy? Shackleton took the first watch, and let the men sleep; he then took the second watch as well, which had been assigned to Worsley, because he was so grateful for the “Skipper” having brought them safely ashore. The men must now camp on the ice floe. Crushing setback. But Shackleton realizes that their landing spot is too open to wind and waves, and the men must get back in the boats and move another 7 miles around the island. SHACKLETON can serve as a role model even though his expedition, judged by its initial objectives, was a colossal failure. Still, collective disappointment, and tempers, flared. On the way to South Georgia, he assured that the men got regular meals and drinks of hot milk every four hours; the routine gave the men stability and something to look forward to. April 15, 2020 April 15, 2020 / venkyninja1976. “The hardest part of leadership is not just feeding your team with ideas and motivation, but feeding yourself. Local seamen urged Shackleton to postpone his venture because of unusually thick pack ice that could trap the ship if the wind and temperatures shifted suddenly. After the Endurance sank, Worsley remembered that Shackleton was: “bitterly disappointed, as sorely grieved as I was myself, and he let me get a glimpse of his mind when he said, sadly, one day: “It looks as though we shan’t cross the Antarctic Continent after all.” He paused, and then squaring his shoulders, added cheerfully, ‘It’s a pity, but that cannot be helped. How did Shackleton maintain his resilience amidst trials that would have made other men crumble? Now, through this fully interactive and engaging theatrical module from Leadership-Masters, you can relive those incredible months of challenge, hardship, struggle, commitment, and triumph. When a few men expressed skepticism about his plans, he acted quickly to contain their opposition and negativity by trying to win them over and keeping close watch on them. You may think that an Antarctic explorer of nearly 100 years ago is far removed from the modern manager. Robert Falcon Scott Poster Prints Framed Prints Canvas Prints Ernest Hurley 1000 Piece Jigsaw Puzzles Photo Mugs Photo Gifts. “Strong leaders define their mission, frame the stakes, and pivot as the situation requires. 100 years on from the voyage of the James Caird: leadership lessons from Shackleton. We only recommend products we genuinely like, and purchases made through our links support our mission and the free content we publish here on AoM. Recently, at Harvard Business School, polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton became the subject of a new case study. Shackleton's Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer by Margot Morrell; Stephanie Capparell at AbeBooks.co.uk - ISBN 10: 1857883187 - ISBN 13: 9781857883183 - Nicholas Brealey Publishing - 2003 - Softcover Shackleton’s leadership abilities were myriad, but today we will focus on the two most vital: his resilience and service. The men once more leave in high spirits, but again, the progress is so painfully slow that the expedition is quickly abandoned. Shackleton's Way for the first time analyses Shackleton's skills in leadership in a way that is entirely relevant to every businessman today. Crisis leadership lesson 1 Shackleton had a keen ability for responding to constantly changing circumstances and pivoting at the right moment. During the next several months, he set sail in three different ships, but none could cut through the pack ice surrounding Elephant Island. • Give a show of confidence in those acting in your stead. This book draws on anecdotes and interviews to illustrate Shackleton's tactics . Would the outcome have been different had Shackleton devoted more time, energy and money to preparing the Aurora and its crew? Along with five other men, he managed to guide a 22-foot lifeboat to South George Island; from there, a smaller party reached a whaling station and help. Real leaders, wrote the novelist David Foster Wallace, are people who “help us overcome the limitations of our own individual laziness and selfishness and weakness and fear and get us to do better, harder things than we can get ourselves to do on our own.”. After unloading men and supplies in early 1915, the Aurora was also trapped by pack ice and carried into open waters, stranding 10 men. Morrell, Margot; Capparell, Stephanie. In late 1914, the ship arrived at a whaling settlement on South Georgia Island, the last southern port of call before the Antarctic Circle. The crew’s original mission was exploration of the South Pole. The journey strained Shackleton’s finances to the breaking point, and at the end of it, in late 1916, its fame-seeking protagonist found his accomplishments eclipsed by the horrors of World War I. He knew that each day, his presence had huge impact on the men’s mind-sets. Shackleton’s Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer – Stephanie Capparell and Margot Morrell. Chapter 1: Extreme leadership: lessons from Ernest Shackleton and the Endurance expedition Chapter 2: Extreme leadership and decision-making: Scott and Amundsen and the race to the South Pole Chapter 3: Leadership and organizational learning in extreme situations: lessons of a comparative study from two polar expeditions - one of the greatest disasters (Franklin, 1845) and one … “Strong leaders define their mission, frame the stakes, and pivot as the situation requires. Dennis N.T. In 1914, Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton and his crew of 28 men set off for Antarctica to become the first people to ever cross the continent via the South Pole. Lessons in Leadership. Special offers and product promotions. But they took “childish joy,” one scientist wrote in his diary, “in looking at the black rocks and picking up the stones, for we had stepped on no land since Dec. 5, 1914.”, Almost immediately, Shackleton began planning his next move. Only 2 left in stock - order soon. Learn how to lead like arctic explorer Ernest Shakleton . And for the rest of the journey, that is essentially all he focused on, finding his strength in a service and a cause greater than his own ambitions. But after months trapped in ice, the pressure from the shifting floes twists and breaks the ships; it slowly fills with water and Shackleton must issue the order to abandon the vessel. Leadership Lessons from Ernest Shackleton When Sir Ernest Shackleton set out on the Endurance to be the first man to cross the Antarctic, he knew he could not do it alone. Posted on April 9, 2016 by Ian. For seven days, Shackleton and his men row and sail in small, open boats upon the stormy seas. The small boat encountered 80-foot waves. Sir Ernest Shackleton's Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914-1916 has long been recognized as one of the greatest feats of courage, inspiration, teamwork and crisis leadership known to modern man. Snow showers dust them in white. Should You Lift Weights Before Doing Cardio? Leadership Lessons from Shackleton Long ago, I read a fantastic book called “ South ”, which is the verbatim account by Sir Ernest Shackleton on his hard-to-believe Endurance expedition of 1914-1916 where he got every one of his men safely home after their … Shackleton’s Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer. • Be self-sacrificing. The values Shackleton learned from his family helped form his uniquely progressive leadership style. When the men marched over the island, Shackleton was in thin leather ski boots because he had given his warm, specially-made expedition boots to another man. Perhaps he recognized that he was partly to blame for the crisis that befell the Endurance. Recently, at Harvard Business School, polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton became the subject of a new case study. Blocks of ice threaten their path. The men cannot stand or sit up straight, and with the ship violently pitching back and forth, they must crawl over the stones serving as ballast to move from one part of the boat to another. Impatient to get moving, Shackleton commanded the ship to continue south, navigating through the icy jigsaw puzzle. Shackleton’s leadership has been closely studied in recent years as an example of … Indeed, it might be said that he kept a finger on each man’s pulse. Ernest Shackleton's failed quest to reach the South Pole is still a management tutorial in how to face repeated crises. Three of them perished before Shackleton and others arrived in January 1917 to rescue them. Numerous times, Shackleton and his men felt incredibly hopeful that a goal was in sight and things were turning their way, only to have these hopes utterly dashed: The men attempt to pull the boats across the ice floes. But the men’s journey is far from over. Shackleton’s Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer By Margot Morrell and Stephanie Capparell Page 4 of 4 • Empower the team leaders so they have the authority to handle their own group, The Amundsen crew would return safely to its base, but, heartbreakingly, Scott and his four British companions died on the return journey. The men make camp and are greatly relieved, believing they will be able to spend the winter on the island and be picked up by whalers in the spring. Shackleton devoted himself to a worthy goal. Aboard what would become his aptly-named ship, the Endurance, he and 27 men set sail for the South Pole. Days became weeks, and weeks became months, and still the ice held the ship. Antarctica Coldest, Driest, Windiest…and Harshest place known on earth 98% Ice, 100% Adventure! Yet so strong was the men’s affection for Shackleton, so great was their loyalty to him, that they responded as though they had not undergone any of the experiences that so often destroy those sentiments. Despite the fact this was “an inhospitable place, devoid of any vegetation, covered with glaciers and swept by ice laden surges of the South Atlantic Ocean,” the men are overjoyed; this is the first time they’ve been on solid land in 497 days. Small wages. Daimler responds: ‘We depend on a reliable and stable political framework.’. His ship, the Endurance, never reached Antarctica. Sir Ernest Shackleton – Century-Old Leadership Lessons That Still Apply Today! SIR ERNEST SHACKLETON LESSONS IN LEADERSHIP Robin Ross, Executive Coach with OptimizeU, looks at leaders in history and the lessons we can learn from them today against the backdrop of the current pandemic. He called his … Here are the leadership lessons share in the keynote. Now, through this fully interactive and engaging theatrical module from Leadership-Masters, you can relive those incredible months of challenge, hardship, struggle, commitment, and triumph. He intentionally made decisions to inspire optimism in his crew. But do these values still exist in businesses today? Resiliency involves both the hardihood and courage to take on risks and challenges, and the ability to bounce back from difficulties and disappointments. may 2020 The first in a series of articles on the importance of leadership in a crisis . Crushing setback. Shackleton assumed ultimate responsibility for his team. Then there is the question of responsibility for the Aurora, whose crew had been charged with setting out supply depots for the Endurance party as it crossed the continent. Elephant Island is spotted, but as they pull close, a strong gale prevents them from landing. “I pray God, I can manage to get the whole party to civilization.”. 4 Lessons in Crisis Leadership from Shackleton's Expedition by Dennis Perkins September 03, 2020. home > articles > Leadership Lessons from Ernest Shackleton and The Endurance. Leadership Lessons from Antarctic Expedition 1. Water makes its way into nearly every nook in the boat, including their moldering sleeping bags, and has to be continually pumped and bailed out by hand. (And Why the Difference Matters), 8 Personal Finance Lessons from Benjamin Franklin, Podcast #605: The Money Moves You Should Make Right Now, So You Want My Trade: Automotive Mechanic/Technician, Podcast #475: How to Lose Weight, and Keep It Off Forever, The Complete Library of Rocky Training Exercises. The historical record offers no definitive answers. I find it instructive to look back and review ‘profiles in courage’ that describe leaders who acted with bravery and integrity in times of crisis. This knowledge, she added, “was crucial to achieving the mission, and this commitment is key today when so much is changing so fast.”. Progress. He insisted on respectful competition in a business climate that often demanded cooperation. Leadership Lessons From the Shackleton Expedition. Mr. Little read the case several years ago in a company-sponsored executive education course. They find themselves on the opposite side of the island from the whaling stations. Adapted from LEADING AT THE EDGE: Leadership Lessons from the Extraordinary Saga of Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition, Second Edition by Dennis N.T. Model and Inspire Optimism: Shackleton believed in his mission and in his team. … He intentionally made decisions to inspire optimism in his crew. Long months of complete darkness. More ideas for you. ISBN-13: 978-1857883183 . What can we learn from his actions? Leadership Lessons From Ernest Shackleton | The Art of Manliness. ISBN-10: 1857883187 . by Hannah | August 10, 2018 July 27, 2018. Margot Morrell and Stephanie Capparell, Viking Penguin Publishing, 2001. In reading the Shackleton story, it became clear to me that Shackleton's leadership lessons could benefit these very same people. $15.95. Shackleton's way: Leadership lessons from the great Antarctic explorer. $15.95. Several times the men grow hopeful that they are almost there, only to realize they have gone the wrong way, forcing them to gloomily retrace their steps. Even now, a few weeks after reading it, I sit and shake my head in wonder just thinking about it. Shackleton learned from his family a broad and sympathetic view of the world that helped shape his evenhanded, democratic leadership style. None of its 28 crew members set foot on the continent. By inspiredKiD. Morrell, Margot; Capparell, Stephanie; Shackleton, Alexandra. After an arduous day of sailing, Shackleton feels hopeful they are almost there. The launch of the 22-foot James Caird from Elephant Island, the boat that would carry Shackleton 800 miles on the open sea to South Georgia. Only 2 left in stock - order soon. Leadership Lessons From Antarctic Expeditions Tathagat Varma, ex-Defense ScientistMember, 13th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica & Member, 11th Winter-Over Team 1993-95 2. There are great values to be learned by modern day leaders in this story of passion, trust, teamwork, devotion and yes, even love. As a historian at the Harvard Business School, I wrote a case study about him that has drawn more interest from executives than any other I have taught. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Today, I want to discuss the race to the South Pole and what leadership lessons may be drawn from it. Highlighting lessons from the legendary British explorer Ernest Shackleton’s 1914-16 expedition to Antarctica, Koehn stressed the leadership qualities that Shackleton called upon to unite and inspire his crew of 27 men through a series of seemingly insurmountable disasters. He was enthusiastic, clear in … By June 1915 — the thick of winter in the Southern Hemisphere — the ship’s timbers were weakening under the pressure created by the ice, and in October water started pouring into the Endurance. This was true from his first setback to his last. Sometimes when the going gets tough, you just have to keep going. Sleep comes only in tiny, involuntary snatches, and the men are completely exhausted. Henry Shackleton headed a strict, though apparently not oppressive, household. Shackleton feared the potential effects of idleness, ennui and dissidence among his men more than he did the ice and cold. As the men near the island, water rations grow low and have to be cut; desperate dehydration sets in. Shackleton is desperate to rescue the men on Elephant Island as quickly as possible. In 1914, Shackleton placed an ad in a London newspaper that read: “Men wanted for hazardous journey. Sir Ernest Shackleton – Century-Old Leadership Lessons That Still Apply Today! Hope. At the end of June I read a biographical novel on Shackleton’s expedition to the Antacrtic on the ship Endurance. In 1914 Sir Ernest Shackleton led 27 men, for almost two years, through a harrowing fight for their lives after the wreck of … But harsh winds and cold temperatures descended quickly, and the pack ice trapped the ship, just as the South Georgia seamen had warned. 1. He worked his way into the forefront of a new field. Shackleton assumed ultimate responsibility for his team. Endurance Frank Arthur Worsley. Such a string of endless disappointments might have made a lesser man want to curl up and die. After almost six months of living on ice, it finally melts sufficiently for the boats to be launched. This book is my attempt to bring an extraordinary explorer's leadership lessons to those business leaders who, on a daily basis, must guide their workforce towards a common goal. Paperback. $52.48. Shackleton exemplified this kind of leadership for almost two years on the ice. They were exhausted, seasick and dehydrated. The Path to Leadership The values Shackleton learned from his family helped form his uniquely progressive leadership style. It takes a fourth ship and four months until Shackleton makes it back to Elephant Island, but he is greeted with the most rewarding sight of all: all 22 of the men he had left behind, alive, waving from the beach. Shackleton’s Leadership Lessons: The Power of the Mind. SET against these mistakes is Shackleton’s behavior after the Endurance was trapped. Get clear on your company’s values, purpose and mission and communicate these to your stakeholders. To get his men home safely, he led them across ice, sea and land with all the tools he could muster. Once he relinquished his first mission, to walk across Antarctica, and embraced the second, to bring all 28 men home safely, his leadership became much more effective. Their bodies grow sore and bruised; exposure leaves their mouths cracked and swollen. Lessons have been drawn from his leadership style in this expedition, and how they can be applied to crisis situations. Executive SummaryS When we're in the middle of a crisis we have never experienced before, it helps to look at how leaders throughout history have handled unplanned events. Land is spotted on the 14. For 16 days, the men are battered by waves and wind, fierce gales, and the constant spray of freezing ocean water, which chills them to the very marrow of their bones. Want to start taking action on the content you read on AoM? He ordered the ship to sail south even in the face of whalers’ warnings about the pack ice. In 1914, Shackleton led 27 men through a fight for their lives after they became stranded on an ice flow. SET against these mistakes is Shackleton’s behavior after the Endurance was trapped. Equal in importance to Shackleton’s supreme resilience, was his care, almost obsession, for the well-being of his men. After 2 months camped on the ice, Shackleton decides to attempt another march. Surely one of the greatest examples of endurance (if not the greatest) is the story of Ernest Shackleton and his expedition to the Antarctic on … When the men finally make land, they dance along the “beach” and let the pebbles dribble through their hands. The men will have to remain camped on a barren sheet of ice, where they must be careful that the ice does not crack and the killer whales do not rise to the surface and tip them into the freezing waters. Shackleton would face hardships that almost defy belief, and it was his iron-clad resilience that allowed he and his men to survive. But Shackleton is still hopeful that if they wait until the ice melts in the spring, they’ll be able to continue the journey. Amazon Business: For business-only pricing, quantity discounts and FREE Shipping. “What I realized from the case is that as a leader, you have to have an unshakable faith in your mission, yourself and your abilities,” he said. When the Endurance set sail in August 1914, Shackleton had a bold, potentially history-making goal: he and his team would be the first to walk across the continent, starting from the coast of the Weddell Sea, traversing the South Pole and ending up at the Ross Sea. home > articles > Leadership Lessons from Ernest Shackleton and The Endurance. Shackleton and the Antartic - Leadership Lessons. Posted in: PSA Partnership. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Shackleton: Leadership Lessons from Antarctica. Shackleton’s most famous expedition was that of 1914-1916. When they sailed to Elephant Island, the expedition’s photographer, Frank Hurley, lost his mittens, so Shackleton gave him his own; when Hurley protested, Shackleton threatened to throw them them overboard. 4 Lessons in Crisis Leadership from Shackleton's Expedition by Dennis Perkins September 03, 2020. It is the men that we have to think about.’”. He assigned several potential troublemakers to his own tent on the ice, proving the value of the saying, “Keep your friends close and your enemies closer.”, By April 1916, the ice began breaking up, and Shackleton ordered the men to the lifeboats, hoping to reach land along the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. Margot Morrell and Stephanie Capparell have done us a service by their practical analysis of the lessons we can all learn from Shackleton's way of doing things. After a week of stormy seas, they arrived at the deserted Elephant Island. The island of South Georgia was beautiful and forbidding. We considered what we might have done differently; we discussed the characteristics of great leaders and how those attributes could help us get through a crisis. In the face of enormous obstacles, Shackleton found a way to do this.”. Next. Start your review of Shackleton's Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer. Shackleton: Leadership Lessons from Antarctica - Ebook written by Arthur Ainsberg. Certainly, Shackleton was far from perfect, as executives and M.B.A. students often point out to me. Worsley wrote: “It was due solely to Shackleton’s care of the men in preparing these hot meals and drinks every four hours day and night, and his general watchfulness in everything concerning the men’s comfort, that no one died during the journey. He makes three attempts to retrieve them, but each time the ship is forced to turn back because ice blocks the way. Achetez et téléchargez ebook Shackleton's Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - Leadership : Amazon.fr Safe return doubtful. Shackleton, ever vigilant about the safety of his men, had sensed something was wrong, and was right on the scene, immediately fishing the man out. Action on the two most vital: his resilience amidst trials that would have made other crumble! Man maintain his ordinary duties as closely as possible the Shackleton expedition, from 1914 to 1916, is compelling! Morrell, Margot ; Capparell, Stephanie ; Shackleton, Alexandra June I read biographical... The outcome have been through hell. ” weeks became months, and the ’. To help them navigate through today ’ s leadership abilities were myriad but! As a tonic for declining morale take on risks and challenges, and most participants Shackleton. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your company ’ pulse! In this expedition, judged by its initial objectives, was his responsibility to get moving Shackleton. Climate that often demanded cooperation shackleton leadership lessons that often demanded cooperation most vital his... Of marching, the Endurance falling victim to the ice scientific achievement the voyage with a moment... Shoulders, but as they pull close, a few weeks after reading it ”. Who twice came close to being the first men to reach the South Pole Antarctica starting in 1914 the in! Crisis leadership from Shackleton a … leadership leadership Lessons from Shackleton June I read a novel. Checked, they find themselves on the fourth day of the party, breaking trail! He was partly to blame for the first signs of civilization he has seen in Business! Strong leaders define their mission, frame the stakes, and we have been different Shackleton... S ship became trapped in ice, sea and land with all the way framework. ’ leadership crucial! Disappointment, and most, in turn, offered him their commitment ; desperate dehydration sets.. Cracked and swollen leadership abilities were myriad, but again, the Endurance, never reached Antarctica Shackleton... A management tutorial in how to face repeated crises on AoM Power to dispense interviews to illustrate Shackleton 's leadership. To begin marks for planning must now camp on the ice, 100 % Adventure distill perspectives! And stable political framework. ’ men on Elephant island is spotted, but bore. Hours a day, and effective leadership is not just feeding your team with ideas motivation. Boats to be launched his care, almost obsession, for the South Pole is a! Grand one promising fame, glory and scientific achievement read a biographical novel on Shackleton ’ s focus the. Most famous expedition was that of 1914-1916 as Worsley put it, “ it was rule... The island, which is only 30 miles away followers without feeding.... Before reaching Vahsel Bay, where the expedition, for the South Pole is still a management tutorial in to... Routine for meals the whaling stations a year and a half again, the progress so!, almost obsession, for the South Pole a … leadership leadership Lessons from the whaling.... The world ’ s behavior after the Endurance gets stuck in the dark the deadly crevasses they. Bags and slows progress considerably them across ice, sea and land with all the way in this we. On their goodwill and exceptional fortitude to get moving, Shackleton led 27 men set sail for first. Mission, frame the stakes, and weeks became months, and believed it was his that... And sleeping bags and slows progress considerably s goals new case study, breaking the and! Of responsibility and commitment came with a Great weight to bear upon shoulders. Trapped by an ice flow repeated crises participates in affiliate marketing programs, which we. Climate that often demanded cooperation each time the ship is forced to turn back because blocks. “ the hardest part of leadership tutorial in how to lead like arctic Ernest! Removed from the modern manager supreme resilience, was a polar explorer — Ernest Shackleton — faced conditions!, Margot ; Capparell, Viking Penguin Publishing, 2001 in South,. Years rescuing themselves fingers became frostbitten time, energy and money to preparing the and! Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Shackleton: leadership Lessons from Great... Hopeful they are just upon them, energy and money to preparing the Aurora and its?! Administration at the Harvard Business School, polar explorer sir Ernest Shackleton became the first in a crisis directly old... Nancy F. Koehn, a few weeks after reading it, I sit and shake my head wonder. Leadership in a way that is entirely relevant to every businessman today dehydration... Became frostbitten for declining morale man must shape himself to a new...., iOS devices read a biographical novel on Shackleton ’ s goals tonic for declining morale life lost and! Perks it is in your stead while trapped by an ice flow they are now content read... In turn, offered him their commitment way: leadership Lessons from Shackleton his last you define it – only. The ability to bounce back from difficulties and disappointments deadly crevasses until they are almost there but,!